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Obtaining EU citizenship through descent, for up to 2 generations


The Czech Republic allows citizenship by descent up to the 2nd generation, which means that you may be eligible for Czech citizenship if either your parents or grandparents were former Czech citizens.

However, if your parents were not married and only your father was a Czech citizen, they must provide proof of paternity at the Registry Office. This proof can come in the form of a DNA test, a court order, or a joint declaration from both parents.


To qualify for Portuguese citizenship by descent, you must meet one of the following criteria:

  • You were born in Portugal to Portuguese parents.

  • You were born to Portuguese parents who were abroad on official state business.

  • You were born in Portugal to foreign parents, but at least one of your parents was born in Portugal and still resides there, regardless of their current citizenship status. OR at least one of your parents had been residing in Portugal for at least a year, and they expressed their desire to be Portuguese citizens, whether they were residing there legally or illegally at the time of declaration.

  • Despite being born overseas, at least one of your grandparents was a citizen of Portugal.

To be eligible for citizenship by origin in Portugal, the preceding generations must be listed in the Civil Registry. If a generation is skipped, you are ineligible. There is no deadline for filing your birth certificate if you were born overseas, and you can declare your citizenship once you turn 18.


Romania allows individuals to apply for citizenship by descent if they have a parent or grandfather who was a Romanian citizen.

If you have a parent, grandparent, or great-grandparent born in the Kingdom of Romania between 1918 and 1940, including the provinces of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, you may apply for citizenship up to the third generation.


To be eligible for Slovenian citizenship by descent, you need to have at least one parent or grandparent who was or is a citizen of Slovenia.

In case one of your parents holds Slovenian nationality, you may seek citizenship registration in Slovenia before turning 36 years of age, even if you were born outside of Slovenia.


To be eligible for Spanish citizenship by descent through the second generation, certain generational restrictions must be considered based on the year of birth, as Spain's nationality law has changed over time. However, if you meet the following conditions, you may be able to apply:

  • One or both of your parents are Spanish citizens.

  • You have at least one grandmother who was a Spanish citizen, and their citizenship was taken away against their will.

  • You have a grandparent who was born in Spain, even if you reside in Latin America.


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